EERA regularly publishes papers. Presentations in workshops and conferences are frequently given to express the views of the recyclers. Position papers, brochures and relevant other publications can be found here. Work documents, minutes of meetings and results of surveys and research documents are only available for members.

Sharing experiences and best practices batteries in WEEE

It is a fact that high energy batteries – mostly lithium type – are posing serious fire risks to WEEE recyclers. EERA calls on all stakeholders to implement ADR rules for the safe collection and transport of WEEE including batteries. 80 % of WEEE recycling companies report serious fires and related incidents at their facilities. The risk of fires is a serious cause of concern for the security and safety of employees at treatment facilities.

Recently EERA organised two workshops for members: “Sharing experiences and best practices with batteries in WEEE”

Manfred Fahrner, has summarized these experiences in a comprehensive report.

EERA calls on all stakeholders, EU and national rule makers and authorities, to contribute to improving the safety of the collection and treatment of WEEE.

  • ADR rules (European Agreement concerning the International Carriage of Dangerous Goods by Road) clearly prohibit the transport of lithium-type batteries in bulk containers. The CENELEC Standard EN 50625 on the collection and logistics associated with WEEE prohibits crushing, compaction, and uncontrolled tipping of electrical and electronic waste. ADR and EN 50625 must be enforced.
  • Removable batteries must be removed prior to shipment. Devices with embedded batteries must be segregated and shipped in compliance with ADR.
  • Small electronic equipment which contains an increasing percentage of devices with embedded batteries must not be transported in bulk containers.
  • Standardised and easy to recognise labels for the identification of batteries in electronics are needed.
  • The required level of knowledge for staff collecting WEEE often exceeds the level of training and qualification generally available to waste collectors.
  • The increased costs of compliant handling and of safety measures must be borne by the stakeholders putting battery-operated devices on the market. Modulated fee systems are needed to cover the growing expense caused by batteries in electrical and electronic equipment.
  • The future design of devices shall take into account the inherent danger from batteries in the end-of-life stage of electronic equipment. Producers are called upon to design safer batteries, and to facilitate the easy detection and removal of batteries from WEEE. The potential of modern technology for automated detection should be explored.


One of the main conclusions is that all the safety measures and further experience cannot eliminate the inherent risks associated with batteries. It is important that the dangers from waste batteries are addressed as early as possible in the collection and recycling chain.  

EERA hopes that this report will contribute to raising more awareness among politicians and stakeholders about the risks of fires caused by batteries in WEEE. EERA is looking forward to contribute to reducing the risks of fires, caused by batteries in WEEE.

 To full report: eera-shared-experiences-online-2.pdf 




Study the Impacts of Brominated Flame Retardants on the Recycling of WEEE plastics in Europe

BSEF (bromine industry association) has commissioned an important study conducted by Sofies: the Impacts of Brominated Flame Retardants on the Recycling of WEEE plastics in Europe. The report was launched in on online webinar on November 18 and Arthur Haarman also presented the results of this study in the EERA meeting of december 2nd for an audience of 25 EERA members.



Chris Slijkhuis contributed to the event of BSEF with an insightful overview related to the facts of recycling of WEEE plastics in Europe. 


E waste world conference 2020

EERA contributed with two presentations

EERA contributed to the E waste world  conference (online) with two interesting presentations and a participation in the panel discussion, with strong statements from EERA’s side.

Manfred fahrner: Recycling and material markets functioning markets or a need for regulation? 


Chris Slijkhuis: Fast Tracks  a requirement for circular economy of electronics waste?


Creating a well-functioning EU market for WEEE plastics

This document is meant as input for the guidance document on the classification of plastics wastes. EERA felt the need to provide some input for the guidance document for the classification of plastic wastes for quality recycling within the Europe, as EERA members need to be able to deliver WEEE plastics to compliant plastic recycling facilities in Europe without additional burdens (see also chapter 4.3 of the Circular Economy Action plan).


Why WEEE recyclers should be members of EERA

EERA brochure : Why WEEE recyclers should be members of EERA. 

EERA is the voice of quality recyclers of WEEE in Europe.

EERA can help you with your hands-on WEEE recycling business. If you are in WEEE recycling, you would benefit from becoming an active member of EERA. 



EERA final reaction on Delegated act Norwegian proposals WSR

EERA reaction to second delegated act text to the implementation of the Norwegian Proposals.  EERA calls for the result that all plastic mixes from the recycling of WEEE will be to be allowed to travel to environmentally sound treatment facilities within the EU under the waste code EU48 as amber waste with a procedure of prior consent (notification) and that these WEEE plastics will not be classified as hazardous with the A3210 code.

Find here the full statement: eera-reaction-latest-version-eu-delegated-act-norwegian-proposals-july-2020.pdf


EERA reaction on Informal consultation on a draft delegated act to implement recent changes to the Basel Convention on the control of shipments of plastic waste June 2020

The EU is working on a delegated act to be implemented in EU law because of the Norwegian proposals that have been implemented in the Basel Convention.

This implies that only separated and clean plastic waste may be exported as green listed material under a new B code, namely B3011.

All mixtures will become notifiable wastes under the code Y48. But the worrying issue is that “contaminated plastic wastes” (and the texts specifically mention “incl. halogenated plastics”) will be classified with a Basel A code, namely the new A3210 code.  




Joint call EERA and EURIC to boost technical plastics recycling

Joint call EERA and EURIC to boost technical plastics recycling


The European Electronics Recyclers Association (EERA) and European Recycling Industries’ Confederation (EuRIC) made a joint Call - Boosting Technical Plastics Recycling

EERA and EURIC represent the vast majority of technical plastics recyclers from Waste Electrical & Electronic Equipment (WEEE) and end-of-life vehicles (ELVs).

The plastics recycling industry has been severely impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic. Technical plastics recycled from ELVs and WEEE are no exception. Boosting the Technical Plastics Recycling in Europe is an urgent matter. 

Read th efull document: 2020-07-06-euric-eera-joint-call-to-boost-technical-plastics-recycling.pdf


Why the price of oil has no bearing on the value of post-consumer recycled plastic June 2020

Extended Producer Responsibility (EPR) initiatives stemming from the Polluter Pays principle are being questioned right now when it comes to post-consumer recycled plastics (PCR). With the price of oil at historic low levels the cost of primary plastic is now lower than that of recycled polymers. The cost of collection, processing and production of quality recycled plastics has no index and these cost parameters are not associated with the price of oil.

PCR plastics cannot be indexed against the value of oil. Their origin is from a completely different source. National and European legislation for the collection, treatment, and conversion of plastic products such as waste packaging and WEEE derived plastics form the legal bases for the producer’s responsibility. The cost of recycling made up of environmental compliance, the complex legislative burden such as facility licencing and transboundary shipments, facility infrastructure, applied process and sorting technology, the cost and availability of incinerating plastics containing restricted substances and not least, manpower are not governed by the fluctuations of the oil market.

The Green Deal, Single Use Plastics Directive, Circular Economy Action Plan all need stronger enforcement of their goals. The mandatory content of WEEE derived PCR plastic such as that foreseen for PET beverage containers (30% by 2030) must become part of European and National laws. Taxation models to stimulate the content of PCR plastics in new products must be given serious consideration.

Right now, producers are conveniently forgetting their part in the circular economy. It is after all their products that the recycling industry are collecting and converting for use in new articles. Producers wishing to abandon their responsibilities towards the recycling industry to take advantage of primary plastic prices right now need to look carefully at consumer demand for circular use of plastics. The resistance to consume PCR plastics by producers will affect Fee Modulation calculations where products with no recycled plastic content will be charged a higher rate when placed on the market. Environmental performance labels along with energy efficiency labels will give the consumer a clear choice as to who is following the demand for recycled products.

Ultimately the cost of EPR ends up with the consumer. Whether it is the cost of design, manufacture, or distribution, it all forms part of the price of the product. So too does the cost of end of life care from part of the product price. Consumers will ultimately demand the content of recycled material in their product purchase choices. The feel-good factor for consumers when they deposit an old electrical appliance for recycling that it will one day end up as part of something new is growing. Putting plastic recycling out of business for short term gain is not what is needed now.



Characterisation of fires caused by batteries in WEEE June 2020

EERA is taking part in the roundtable group charactisation of fires  caused by batteries in WEEE. The result of a extensive survey is the final report and can be used for free and can also be found at EERA website- news:

The outcomes are quite similar to the outcomes of our own study related to this topic. Our press release from April 2019 is also attached.

The roundtable group will now focus on Part B: best practices for WEEE equipment with batteries.

It was EERA who initiated the idea of a survey related to fires caused by batteries in WEEE and this was taken over by this roundtable group. EERA would like to thank Manfred Fahrner, senior expert for all his contributions to this study.


Figures on the state of play on collection of plastics from WEEE in EU May 2020

EERA is often asked to provide figures on the state of play on collection of plastics from WEEE in Europe.  EERA expert Chris Slijkhuis decided to make an update with new realistic figures based on the CWIT report (2015), the Urban Mine Platform figures and estimations based on the European WEEE market.  With the growth of the WEEE market since 2012 the WEEE plastics volumes are estimated to be 1.4 Mio MT – of which approximately 50 % from officially collected and report volumes.  The capacity for the treatment of this volume of WEEE plastics in Europe is much smaller.

What we also see is that the average plastics content is fairly stable with: Small Appliances & Consumer IT some: 28%, Large Domestic Appliances: 15%, Temperature Exchange Equipment: 17% and screens (with the current mix of CRT and Flat Panel Displays): 22%.   

Link to the presentation: just click on the heading. 

However the mix of plastics has changed quite a bit over the last 8 years – particularly the average amount of High-Impact PS has reduced considerably and an important reason is the disappearing CRT fraction as well as the replacement of HIPS by PC and PC/ABS in particularly Flat Panel Displays and the Set-Up boxes and modems.  Also the content of PP in Household Appliances has increased. 



EERA Feedback on “Study on Quality Standards for the Treatment of WEEE

EERA Feedback on “Study on Quality Standards for the Treatment of WEEE”


EERA Feedback on “Study on Quality Standards for the Treatment of WEEE” May 2020

Feedback on “Study on Quality Standards for the Treatment of WEEE”

EERA, the European Electronics Recyclers Association, has taken note of the four books (background documents) that constitute the study on quality standards for the treatment of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE).

EERA strongly supports Option One over the other options presented in BD III “Options for EU WEEE treatment requirements”. For many years EERA has expressed the view that it is of great importancethat the European Commission adopt an Implementing Regulation, in accordance with the provisions laid down in article 8(5) of the Directive, to make compliance with and certification to the EN 50625 and EN 501614, covering the collection, logistics, preparation for reuse and treatment of WEEE, mandatory in Europe. This is the best way forward to create a level playing field across the EU.

Read the full feedback by using the link:


EERA report highlights huge scavenging problem across Europe

EERA report highlights huge scavenging problem across Europe

The scavenging of waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) across Europe, which essentially means e-waste or components of e-waste, stolen or misappropriated for financial gain, is a huge problem which has been highlighted by the European Electronics Recyclers Association (EERA).

In 2019, EERA Members and other EU recyclers provided data relating to 2018 levels of scavenging, encompassing 520,000 tonnes of WEEE treated in 43 treatment locations across 9 different countries. Astoundingly, according to the report findings, the value of scavenged materials in 2018 was €151 million.

Apart from the financial losses to waste compliance schemes and compliant recycling companies, there is a massive impact on the environment which cannot be ignored.

To give just one example, the scavenging level of compressors is very concerning due to the release of ozone depleting gasses contained in the refrigeration circuit into the environment. According to EERA’s research, this would equal 3.6 million tonnes of CO2 equivalent, or the annual emissions of 2 million cars.

Read the report in full along with the recommendations made by Sofies, who conducted the study. eera-scavenging-folder-online-4.pdf


EERA paper Substantiated estimated volumes

Opposing policies of the WEEE Directive (2012/19/EU) undermine growth in the
proper treatment of WEEE in Europe.

Article 16, paragraph 4: “Member states shall collect information, including
substantiated estimates, on annual basis, on the quantities and categories of EEE placed
on their markets, collected through all routes, prepared for re-use, recycled and
recovered within the Member State, and on separately collected WEEE exported by weight.”

EERA believes that these substantiated estimated volumes are affecting the proper collection, logistics and treatment of WEEE. Informal collections/recycling volumes are 34% of the EU total. These substantiated estimated volumes are often based on analysis of the input material of large shredders.

EERA highlights the unfairness of the use of substantiated estimates. EERA recommends that Member States should be restricted in the continued use of substantiated estimates and a definitive timeline set out for them to be eliminated.



EERA Technical guidance document - ADR rules for WEEE

EERA technical guidance document. Safe collection and transport of electronic equipment with lithium batteries. Understanding ADR rules made easy. 

EERA Technical guidance document - ADR rules for WEEE



Amendment proposal Recast POP PBDE October 2018

The situation with respect to the recast POP regulation is becoming very critical and the way it looks now it could be very negative for the recycling of WEEE Plastics in particular and with seriousconsequences for the recycling of WEEE in general. The original position of the ENVIE committee in
the European Parliament was that the UTC value for concentrations of decaBDE should be equal to or below 10 mg/kg (0,001 % by weight) when it occurs in substances, mixtures, articles. When this will be adopted by Parliament and Council, it will mean that recycling of WEEE plastics will becomeimpossible in Europe.
EERA proposes the following amendment, which would allow WEEE plastics industry to continue to work.

Please find here the amendment proposal recast POP PBDE


Responsible recycling of CRT

The new brochure responsible recycling of CRT's is published. 



WEEE Recycling Economics- study conducted by United Nations Unversity, the shortcomings of the current business model is published.

This study, gives reliable insight in the operational costs of compliant recycling of WEEE and the widespread selective "scavenging"of products and components and materials.

13 EERA members, encompassing 27 treatment locations in 13 countries for a total volume reported of 465,000 tons, provided data over 2016., for various collection categories.

Open link for results and recommendations in this publication.

WEEE Recycling Economics- study conducted by United Nations Unversity, the shortcomings of the current business model is published.


Joint position paper recast of POP regulation Deca BDE

Joint position on the Recast of the Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) Regulation (EC 850/2004)

Impact on plastics recycling of setting a disproportionately low unintentional trace contaminant (UTC) threshold (10 mg/kg) for decaBDE in Annex I of the POP Regulation.

There is a serious concern on the amendments tabled by the European Parliament to set, in Annex I of the EU POP Regulation, a limit regarding the “unintentional trace contaminant” (UTC) for decaBDE at concentrations “equal to or below 10 mg/kg (0.001 % by weight) [i.e. 10 ppm] when it occurs in substances, mixtures, articles or as constituents of the flame-retarded parts of articles “.

Joint position paper recast of POP regulation Deca BDE


EERA brochure Responsible recycling of WEEE plastics containing BFR's

EERA published a brochure which decribes how WEEE recyclers treat mixed plastics with Best Available Technology in compliance with WEEE and POP regulation. 



Input for new EC study WEEE practices in MS by EERA, WEEE Forum and Eurometaux

Link to the call for Tender (e Tender): 

Input for new EC study WEEE practices in MS by EERA, WEEE Forum and Eurometaux


EC study: WEEE Compliance Promotion Exercise

The European Commission DG Environment, comissioned a study WEEE Compliance Promotion Exercise in 2017. The final report is published.  Click here to download a copy of the final report of the WEEE Compliance Promotion Exercise. 


UNU -EERA study WEEE recycling Economics-the shortcomings of the current business model? 2018

Presentation dr. Jaco Huisman, IERC Salzburg 2018

UNU -EERA study WEEE recycling Economics-the shortcomings of the current business model? 2018


EERA letter to EU Commissioners: Chinese National Sword Program: opportunity for Circular Economy 2017

EERA letter to EU Commissioners: Chinese National Sword Program: opportunity for Circular Economy 2017


EERA position paper WEEE plastics strategy 2017

EERA position paper WEEE plastics strategy 2017


EERA position paper chemicals, product and waste interface 2017

EERA position paper chemicals, product and waste interface 2017


EERA position paper plastics recycling containing DECA BDE 2017

EERA position paper plastics recycling containing DECA BDE 2017


EERA position paper ecodesign electronic displays 2017

EERA position paper ecodesign electronic displays 2017